What Happened

By Hillary Rodham Clinton

For Hillary Clinton, writing a post-mortem of the 2016 presidential race was probably not a good idea. Among the general public it will likely be seen as an exercise in excuse-making, or the re-treading of sour grapes. “Americans love a winner and will not tolerate a loser” is a line that has become something of a national credo. Hence the power of Donald Trump’s favourite epithet, directed at anyone who displeases or disagrees with him.

Piling on is very much the spirit of the age, with the antipathy and opprobrium directed at “losers” only getting worse. To take a familiar example from Internet culture, any loser attempting to say a few words in their own defence, however justified, can expect to trigger an avalanche of instant abuse: mocked for being “salty” or “butthurt,” or as calling for the “Waaaaa-mbulance.” It’s a double no-win situation. Better to move on and not say anything.

Clinton is aware of this thinking, and as early as election night, while preparing her concession speech, she experienced a moment of reflection: “I honestly wondered why anyone would want to hear from me again.” But duty called. She wouldn’t go away. Whether this made her a bulwark against the reactionary forces that threatened America or just a sucker for punishment will be up to history to decide. As she now stands before that tribunal, she just wants to “set the record straight.”

Advisable or not, What Happened was inevitable. Financial terms were not disclosed, but Forbes had it that the advance was “expected to be massive” (as a benchmark, Clinton got $8 million for her previous memoir, for which there was no demand at all). And it was a book she wanted, even needed, to write anyway. In part for catharsis and therapy (justifications she has cited on her book tour), but for other reasons as well. After her loss to Barack Obama in the Democratic primaries in 2008 she had conducted a private autopsy into what went wrong, looking to root out disloyalty and betrayal in her ranks. As reported in Shattered: Inside Hillary’s Clinton’s Doomed Campaign, “She believed her campaign had failed her – not the other way around – and she wanted ‘to see who was talking to who, who was leaking to who.’” It was a scab she couldn’t stop picking, and her anger at her defeat and need to assign blame goes some way to explaining her presidential run eight years later and, now, this explanation of an even worse (on every level) defeat.

Anger and feelings of bitter resentment are not attractive qualities in anyone, much less a candidate for public office, but they seem to have been a major driver in 2016. This was an angry electorate, many of whom felt resentful and betrayed. Perhaps not surprisingly, the candidates embodied and reflected these same dark emotions, and looking about after the election Clinton sees the situation as getting even worse. “The whole country was seething. Before the election, it felt as if half the people were angry and resentful, while the other half was still fundamentally hopeful. Now pretty much everyone is mad about something.” It is left to the reader to guess what party lines she sees this half-and-half split breaks along.

Populist anger had obvious roots. The middle class was being eviscerated while government was seen as unrepresentative and unresponsive at best and oppressive at worse. But where did the anger in the candidates come from?

In Devil’s Bargain, Joshua Green describes what he sees as the moment that propelled Donald Trump into the race for the presidency. It was the 2011 White House Correspondents’ dinner and Trump had, in Green’s phrase, been “setup from the beginning.” He was publicly mocked and humiliated by President Obama and others, and his “interest in politics intensified right after.” “I realized,” he would later say, “that unless I actually ran, I wouldn’t be taken seriously.”

The rage machine was pumped and primed. He would have his revenge at the polls.

And what of Hillary? Why was she running? This is the question that haunts the “doomed campaign” described in Shattered. Despite employing an army of speechwriters, Hillary “didn’t have a vision to articulate.” Indeed, “Hillary had been running for president for almost a decade and still didn’t really have a rationale.”

In the candidate’s own words, as we now have them, the rationale takes the form of the usual bromides. “I knew that if I ran and won, I could do a world of good and help an awful lot of people.” Did that make her ambitious? Sure, but not for money or power for its own sake. Rather, she “wanted power to do what I could to help solve problems and prepare the country for the future.”

As always, she was thinking of the children.

If you think that sounds like a stump speech, and not at all like someone who now feels free to express “unguarded” personal reflections, you’ll have some sense of the disappointment that I think most people will feel trudging through What Happened. In any event, Clinton’s generic talking points (about which I’ll have more to say later) don’t sound any more compelling now than they did at the time, however sincerely they may be held.

The mystery of what made Hillary run is even harder to understand given her personal history. By most if not all accounts she had experienced her eight years as First Lady in the 1990s as a nightmare of public exposure and humiliation. An intensely private and even paranoid person, why would she want to let herself in for more (much more) of the same? Especially given the fact that she would be entering the lists not as a fresh face but as someone with historically high negative ratings and serious vulnerabilities as a candidate?

What was she looking for? Validation? Revenge? Remember that list of enemies.

Leaving all this aside, let’s return to the question of What Happened. And note that the title is not a question. The author, at least, is not in any doubt.

As Bernie Sanders succinctly put it, “Secretary Clinton ran against the most unpopular candidate in the history of this country, and she lost.” Such a stunning result, upsetting pundits and pollsters alike, demands a strict accounting, which it has duly received in an avalanche of analyses. What Happened is part of what has become an entire genre of literature, occupying whole bookstore shelves. Does Hillary’s personal perspective shed any new light on the matter?

Not much. The sad, even tragic thing is that there was really nothing she could do to fix her biggest problems. A presidential candidate in the present age needs to have at least one of two characteristics: outsider status (the rebel, the maverick) or a gift of personal charisma and the common touch. Hillary Clinton couldn’t have been further removed from either. She was the ultimate political insider and, at least on a big stage, devoid of charm. The last president to be so handicapped was George H. W. Bush, another experienced and capable statesman who only rode Reagan’s coattails into the White House and who voters couldn’t wait to see the last of.

Another constant was that in 2016, as always, voters wanted change. This was a mantle that Hillary could never adopt. Her husband diagnosed the problem and tried his best to address it in his speech to the Democratic convention (introducing her as “the best darn change-maker I’ve ever met in my whole life”), but nobody was buying it. Twenty years ago “Clinton fatigue” was a diagnosable illness in the U.S. body politic, and it wasn’t just Bill who people were sick of. Meanwhile, Hillary had never left the public stage. What sort of change did she represent?

Incremental change. Realistic change. Those were her watchwords, and they are repeated over and over again here. But however defensible they were as policy, they were lead balloons on campaign. Her platform may have been worthy and workable, but, as Edward Luce observes, it was “a bit like prescribing aspirin for cancer.” The success of the incremental program was also predicated on the assumption, or perception, that things were getting better. People have to believe that progress is being made in order for them to buy into staying the course. Needless to say, that’s not how people felt, nor did they feel there was much point in sticking with the status quo. Trump’s platform, in so far as a Trump platform could be described, was pie-in-the-sky nonsense, but he was selling Trump sizzle and not Trump steaks. This frustrated Clinton – a self-confessed policy wonk with an incredible grasp of the political process matched with an obsessive attentiveness to detail – but should have come as no surprise. Surprisingly, it did. She didn’t blame her own naivety but rather the press:

In previous elections, there was always a moment of reckoning when candidates had to show they were serious and their plans credible. Not this time. Most of the press was too busy chasing ratings and scandals, and Trump was too slippery to be pinned down. He understood the needs and impulses of the political press well enough that if he gave them a new rabbit every day, they’d never catch any of them. So his reckoning never came.

Clinton can blame the media all she wants, but shouldn’t she have known that this is how it works? She even sounds surprised at Bernie’s success:

I have a new appreciation for the galvanizing power of big, simple ideas. I still think my health care and college plans were more achievable than Bernie’s and that his were fraught with problems, but they were easier to explain and understand, and that counts for a lot. It’s easy to ridicule ideas that “fit on a bumper sticker,” but there’s a reason campaigns use bumper stickers: they work.

She had a “new appreciation” for this, after having spent her entire life in politics? After all of her and her husband’s campaigns she was just realizing the power of big, simple ideas now? It’s moments like these that lead one to distrust Hillary, more than anything revealed in her secret speeches given to bankers or hacked emails.

In brief, despite her clear superiority in terms of competence, experience, intelligence, and temperament, she was a less than ideal candidate. The baggage was too much, and the fact that she was such a polarizing figure and one with few natural strengths as a campaigner just made things more difficult. It was said (she repeats the claim here) that she could do the job but that she couldn’t run for it. “For me,” she writes, “political campaigns have always been something to get through in order to be able to govern, which is the real prize.” But running – getting elected – is the job, as every politician knows. Was she only kidding herself?

Perhaps. We all do it. And like every very rich and powerful person, Hillary lived in a bubble filled with courtiers and flatterers (she prized “loyalty most among human traits,” which among this class of people is not a virtue). However, I don’t think she was out of touch with reality. She knew her shortcomings and sought to make an end run around them by the clever strategy of avoiding even having an election. “This time,” she writes of the Democratic primaries, “I wasn’t going to leave anything to chance.” That is, to anything as vague and shifting as the public will. As a highly intelligent, skilled, and hardworking technocrat this arranging of the business of politics was her element, and had become her preferred m. o.: her political career consisting more of a series of appointments than any electoral success.

She’d had a significant role in her husband’s administration (she scorned staying at home and baking cookies), but only because she was the First Lady. After that she was dropped into a safe seat as a Senator from New York. Patrick Moynihan resigned specifically for her, though she had little connection to her new home. Safe seats in American politics at this level are very safe, and the upshot was that all she had to do was have her name on the ballot and the rest was a matter of taking her place in the Senate. Then there was her run at the Democratic nomination in 2008, which she lost to a relative unknown. She would make sure that wouldn’t happen again. Then another appointment, this time as Secretary of State. During these years she worked hard to sew up the nomination long before she officially announced she was in the race. She had all the money, all the institutional support, all the super-delegates. Nobody from within the party would have a chance, and if any were so bold or so deluded as to make the attempt, there was the very real threat of payback from the Clinton machine (the way traitors were dealt with after her 2008 run). Hence the mantle that was not unfairly draped upon her of being “inevitable.” The media, again not unfairly, referred to the whole process not as an election but a coronation.

(Clinton herself writes that it was in response to this same perception of her privileged status in 2008 that she “determined to run like an underdog and avoid any whiff of entitlement” in 2016. Alas, “Despite my intentions to run like a scrappy challenger, I became the inevitable front-runner before I shook my first hand or gave my first speech, just by virtue of sky-high expectations.” Those expectations, one assumes, are another example of something the media unfairly foisted upon her, and not just an accurate and objective description of the political landscape she had created.)

After having fixed the primaries . . . well, then there was the Republican field. These were the sixteen clowns in the clown car brilliantly described by Matt Taibbi in his collection of field reportage Insane Clown President. This too suited the Democratic candidate. As Edward Lucas, a not-unfriendly source, observes, “Long before Trump came on the scene it was obvious Hillary Clinton could only win the presidency by default. Regardless of how awful her opponent might be, a grudging victory was the best she could hope for.” But that would be fine. Winning by default wasn’t a fall-back option, it was the plan. Then the field propitiously narrowed down to Donald Trump, an anti-candidate who was widely described, perhaps correctly, as the only public figure in the United States with unfavourable ratings higher than her own, and the only one she could be confidently projected to beat in a general election. The “real prize,” after all the messy business of democratic politics had been taken care of was within sight.

At least it was until the unlikely rise of Bernie Sanders. Many were surprised to find What Happened so critical of Sanders, but I think it’s easy to understand Clinton’s outrage. What was the crazy old guy doing in the race? He was another outsider, not even a member of the Democratic Party. The real Dems, for their part, did their best to rid her of him, but were only partially successful. The inevitable coronation began to wobble off its base. Hillary was still inevitable – Sanders never had a chance – but things had started to get ugly. There would be a coronation, but it would be a tarnished crown.

Things went from bad to worse in the general election. It seems impossible, even a year after the fact, but somehow Hillary lost. The main reasons have already been mentioned: Hillary’s own unpopularity and lack of charisma and her inescapable branding as the candidate of the status quo. To these one could add – and she does – foreign intervention (Russian meddling), misogyny, a last-minute FBI announcement, the Electoral College system, Bernie’s negative campaigning, and her treatment at the hands of the media.

She argues her case well – you would expect nothing less – but I came away unconvinced. All of these factors played some role, no doubt, but they seem more like icing on a cake that had been already baked. Yes, James Comey’s October surprise swung the polls against her very late in the game, but those polls (which still had her winning on the eve of the election) were wrong with regard to just about everything leading up to the election, and really, by the last week of the campaign, if things were that close, then obviously much else had gone terribly awry. The Electoral College, or “godforsaken Electoral College” as she calls it here, was a given, and her losing the election despite winning the popular vote was not an “absurdity.” It’s also worth remembering that leading up to the election the Electoral College system was considered by everyone to be to her advantage. Trump had by far the narrowest route to the White House. The she couldn’t block him reflects even more poorly on her.

As for the crossfire from Sanders, this may have hurt her, but . . . she was in an election campaign. What did she want? Bernie to just go away without causing any trouble or making any noise? (Answer: Yes.)

The most problematic of the causes Clinton delves into is the role of the media. The story here is complicated. Clinton thinks the media spent far too much time covering stories relating to her emails and not enough on policy. Coverage was also manipulated, in a fashion, by Trump, who got lots of “free media” by boosting ratings. Leslie Moonves, the chairman of CBS, publicly pled guilty to having been an enabler, saying that Trump’s campaign “may not be good for America, but it’s damn good for CBS.”
That said, I think the influence of the traditional mass media can be overstated in today’s elections, especially among Trump supporters, who are notoriously averse to it. They had Breitbart, InfoWars, and whatever showed up on their Facebook news feed. Did the New York Times (Clinton’s bête noire) sway many voters in Wisconsin? Who even reads newspapers anymore?

It’s also the case that the media overwhelmingly endorsed Clinton for president and were savagely critical of Trump. Even right-wing media and conservative columnists, in magazines, cable shows and talk radio, came out against the Republican Party-crasher. The movement even had a name: Never Trump. The problem was, Trump was running against the media anyway, so, in his case, there really was no such thing as bad publicity. Clinton didn’t know how to deal with such a phenomenon, and in her defence I don’t think anyone else has yet either.

Special mention has to be made of two other reasons for her loss that Clinton discusses in What Happened: misogyny and Russia. Again, both of these were real factors in the election, though I don’t think either was pivotal. Of course, the fact that the race was so close, turning on a matter of thousands of votes in a few states, can make any cause, no matter how trivial, appear a deciding one in retrospect. The point is that it should never have been such a close race in the first place, and the reasons it wasn’t were the more general ones already discussed.

But with misogyny and Russia we see another blind spot in Clinton’s campaign. Here she seems more like someone stuck in the past. The thing is, neither issue was a hot-button in 2016. Clinton could talk about breaking that highest and hardest glass ceiling, but she was running right after Obama, who had already achieved a far more significant and surprising breakthrough in becoming the first African-American president. Most Americans in the twenty-first century accept that a woman president is not only possible but inevitable. It wasn’t something to get all that exercised over.

There’s actually a very funny moment that Hillary wants to take note of and that she “will never forget” that addresses some of this. Throughout her campaign she made use of celebrities, which I think hurt her more than it helped, and at one rally in Cleveland the singer Beyoncé took the microphone. “I want my daughter to grow up seeing a woman lead our country and know that her possibilities are limitless,” the pop star said to the crowd. This struck me as bizarre. I could see a racial argument being made, but there’s already been a black president. So the child of Beyoncé and Jay-Z will grow up feeling her opportunities in life are narrower because a woman didn’t get elected president? Really? I think Beyoncé’s children are going to be just fine. And if you had to choose, wouldn’t you rather be Beyoncé than the president anyway? The glass ceiling metaphor here looks pretty weak.

As with the glass ceiling, the Red scare doesn’t mean as much as it did in the last century. The Soviet Union fell a long time ago, and Russia’s government today is seen as corrupt and autocratic, but no longer a really dangerous adversary of the U.S. It doesn’t even provide an ideological enemy, as it is basically being run by football-club owning oil-and-gas oligarchs and a bloated military-industrial complex. This sounds more like what the U.S. is turning into than a threat to America’s existence. To be sure Putin was trying to get Trump, who he probably thought of as a useful idiot, into the White House, but in 2016 this didn’t seem any different from the usual hacker outrages and data thefts we hear about all the time. The evil Putin might have been just another Nigerian prince offering to make us into millionaires.

In both cases – misogyny and the Russian invasion – the response, and not just among the much-maligned Millennials, was a collective shrug. Perhaps this wasn’t as it should have been, but the bottom line is that these weren’t energizing issues. People had bigger problems than a glass ceiling that they were never going to come up against anyway and foreign hackers who weren’t taking money directly out of their bank accounts. Voter suppression, which Clinton only briefly touches on, strikes me as a much bigger problem, but one that the system seems ill-suited to deal with (since it is very much a product of that system).

I feel for Hillary Clinton. Much of What Happened is spin, but there are moments that I think are deeply felt. Clinton is at her best discussing matters of policy or laying out her case for why she lost, but behind it all is the fact that she did lose an election she should have won to a candidate who seems to have only run as a joke. I don’t think anyone who hasn’t run for public office can fully empathize with what such rejection feels like. To know that so many people simply don’t like you (or hate you without even knowing you) is hard for anyone to take. Indeed, it’s so hard as to be almost impossible. One has to adopt defence mechanisms, like Clinton’s famous reserve, or else try to deflect the blame for such rejection elsewhere. This is only natural. It is understandable. I found the following passage touching:

I have to come to terms with the fact that a lot of people – millions and millions of people – decided they just didn’t like me. Imagine what that feels like. It hurts. And it’s a hard thing to accept. But there’s no getting around it.

Moments like these made me want to like What Happened. It is, however, a nearly unreadable book. It introduces itself by promising that Clinton will be letting her guard down but I never had the sense that this was happening. Instead, it reads like campaign literature.

Two aspects of Clinton’s presentation of self are particularly bothersome.
In the first place, she is at all times the Hero of her own story. There were concerns about whether What Happened would show a requisite amount of contrition on Clinton’s part, and this is something she immediately addresses by stating for the record that she takes responsibility. But for what? The few mistakes she admits to she describes as being mainly due to the bad “optics.” She doesn’t feel she did anything wrong by keeping an email server in her basement or giving secret talks to bankers, but she understands why people would think that she had. She takes responsibility, sort of, for the smoke, but insists there was no fire.

Otherwise, her faults are all the result of an excess of virtue. What Happened is a non-stop humblebrag: she didn’t have enough ego (“I had to actively try to use the word I more”) and didn’t blow her own horn enough, was too polite, too honest and caring, too reserved, too composed, too focused on policy, too practical. In brief, she was too good for the dirty world of politics. Her subsequent shunning is just like what happened to Cersei Lannister on Game of Thrones! Oh, wait . . .

I’ve mentioned the psychological burden of being rejected at the polls, and how unbearable it can be. Clinton adopts two approaches to avoiding it. The first is to take on the role of martyr. Yes, she lost, but don’t feel bad for her. Rather, feel ashamed of yourself for letting down the side. Just think “about all the women who had marched, rallied, picketed, went to jail, and endured ridicule, harassment, and violence so that one day someone like me could come along and run for President.” You have betrayed them all. There’s a special place in hell for you, or so we’re told by the not-so-forgiving cardinals of the Church.

Seeing as I’ve quoted the passage in the book that shows Clinton at her best, I’ll now balance things off by quoting the one that I think shows her at her worst, as it relates to this same point:

Since November, more than two dozen women – of all ages, but mostly in their twenties – had approached me in restaurants, theaters, and stores to apologize for not voting or not doing more to help my campaign. I responded with forced smiles and tight nods. On one occasion, an older woman dragged her adult daughter by the arm to come talk to me and ordered her to apologize for not voting – which she did, head bowed in contrition. I wanted to stare her straight in the eyes and say, “You didn’t vote? How could you not vote? You abdicated your responsibility as a citizen at the worst possible time! And now you want me to make you feel better?” Of course I didn’t say any of that.

These people were looking to me for absolution that I just couldn’t give. We all have to live with the consequences of our decisions.

Where to start? That someone writing a memoir could be so tone-deaf as to present herself in such a repellent light, and not even know it? That after her disclaimers about taking responsibility for having let so many people down she now describes herself holding court while they come begging absolution of her, which she only acknowledges with a tight nod of regal authority? That she was not only not offended or disgusted at a woman humiliating her own daughter before her, but actually got angry at the daughter for not having done her duty? That she would expect the reader to feel proud of her exercise of restraint?

This is sickening stuff, and I can’t grant Hillary absolution for having written it.

The other option for avoiding the pain of rejection and loss is through denial. Live in an alternate reality where the people really liked you. Imagine that you won. After all, you did win the popular vote (this is brought up over and over again, to the point where it becomes a running gag). Provide a lot of descriptions of the wildly enthusiastic receptions you received every time you gave a speech, beginning with the campaign’s kick-off on Roosevelt Island: “Friends smiled up at me from the front row. Bill, Chelsea, and Marc were glowing with pride and love. . . a sea of people clapped, hollered, and waved American flags.”

Moments like these are such a high that she can’t even resist giving us the victory speech she had written for election night and basking in a moment of make believe. And finally as a proxy triumph she concludes the book with the reception she got at a commencement speech she gives at her old college:

We turned a corner and saw young women in black robes lining both sides of the hall. They began to clap and cheer wildly. Around another corner were more students. They went on and on, hundreds of them, the entire senior class, lined up like an honor guard. Their cheers were deafening. It was like they were letting months of pent-up feelings pour out – all the hope and hurt they’d felt since November or perhaps since long before. I felt loved and lifted, carried aloft on a wave of emotion.

This is really how the book ends. Words fail me.

The second aspect of the presentation of the self has to do with Clinton’s language. The greatest mystery about What Happened is the quality of the writing. Whatever else you want to say about her, Hillary Clinton is a very intelligent person. She is also an avid reader. The most endearing revelation here is how much she and Bill love books. So how can she be this bad a writer? And by bad I mean a style so thick with insipid platitudes and clichés as to frustrate any attempt at empathy.

I don’t know if Clinton has ever read a Hallmark card or book of inspirational wisdom that she hasn’t taken notes on. She absolutely adores canned wisdom, and the simpler the better. Apparently she makes her speeches out of this material, carrying with her a “little book I keep of quotations, Scripture, and poems.” Someone should point her to websites or apps that will make life easier, as well as assist in fact checking.
Every chapter has an epigraph making the same point about not giving up, trying hard, and doing the right thing. One reads as follows:

To leave the world a bit better, whether by a healthy child, a garden patch or a redeemed social condition; to know even one life has breathed easier because you have lived. This is to have succeeded.

A note then follows this saying it is a quotation “attributed to Ralph Waldo Emerson.” Two minutes on the Internet would have told her that this is a misattribution and that the words actually derive from something written circa. 1900 by a Bessie Stanley of Lincoln, Kansas, who had entered a newspaper contest for a 100-word essay on the topic of What is Success? So much for appropriation of a female voice!

Not that it matters who wrote something so bland and generic. One assumes Clinton got it out of a book full of such quotes, which may also have supplied the epigraph attributed only as a “Chinese proverb” that heads a later chapter. Either that or it’s Ancient Chinese Wisdom from a fortune cookie.

It gets even worse. David Remnick of the New Yorker tells the story:

I went uptown to Riverside Church, where Clinton was scheduled to hold a public conversation with Bill Shillady, a Methodist minister and a family friend who during the campaign had e-mailed Clinton hundreds of morning devotionals — Bible passages with accompanying short sermons — and who had helped officiate at Chelsea Clinton’s wedding, in 2010, to Marc Mezvinsky. Now he was publishing those devotionals as a book called Strong for a Moment Like This.

Clinton was doing Shillady a kindness, but even in this she couldn’t catch a break. The day before the event, the publisher, Abingdon Press, announced that it was withdrawing the book because it was filled with passages plagiarized from other pastors and sources. Shillady issued an apology, but, naturally, Clinton took the hit in the press. In her fashion, Clinton soldiered through, holding the conversation with another Methodist minister, Ginger Gaines-Cirelli.

Whatever their provenance – if platitudes even have a provenance – Clinton eats this stuff up. In deciding to enter the race she is struck by three essential pieces of advice offered up by a sixty-four year old woman who was the first to swim from Cuba to Florida without a shark cage: “Never ever give up. You’re never too old to chase your dreams. And even if something looks like a solitary sport, it’s a team effort.” This is the kind of thing you read on grade-school motivational posters with pictures of sailboats tacking into the sunset, but Clinton follows it up with an enthusiastic “Words to live by!” She’s impressed! Then someone whispers in her ear the words “Dare to compete” (taken from a school banner) and, well, “Something just clicked.” She is also taken by the wisdom of Eleanor Roosevelt: “I return to her aphorisms again and again.” Example? “If I feel depressed, I go to work.” That’s another keeper for her copybook. At one point she even sees people on a protest march holding up signs with generic quotes from her own speeches – “Women’s Rights Are Human Rights,” “I Am Powerful and Valuable” – and the words lift her spirits. Seriously.

The worst thing about such a style is that it’s hard to trust. Surely, we think, this isn’t meant to be taken seriously. Such an armour of motivational-poster wisdom must be concealing something. And she does occasionally register that there is a problem, if only of “optics.” For example, after talking about how much she likes kids she has this to say:

I’m sure that in our hypercritical age, this sounds like just a lot of happy talk – the kind of thing politicians say when they’re trying to show their softer side. After all, who doesn’t like kids? Everybody professes to, even when their policies would actually hurt children. But I mean it. This is real for me.

Can we believe her? Does she mean it? Is it real? You can see how the matter of style gets at the heart of the problem with Clinton, and What Happened. People don’t trust Hillary, they don’t find her open, and this puzzles and bothers her. She doesn’t know what else she can do or how much more of herself she can give.

But everything she gives us is embedded in this sticky web of clichés. Trump, in comparison, was wholly transparent. His was the entirely un-mediated self. The misspelled, ungrammatical late-night Twitter rants told us (and continue to tell us) exactly what he thinks and feels. He is vulgar, ignorant, and uncomplicated. He likes gold-plated toilets. He likes meat loaf. He likes grabbing models by the pussy. And we know why he is doing all of this: because he is a narcissist mountebank looking to expand his brand. Then we look at Hillary’s exterior of bland platitudes drawn from (plagiarized) commonplace books and wonder what’s behind it.

One is left thinking that she’s either still being guarded or that Hillary Clinton is the most boring, superficial person alive. Being very much a product of our hypercritical age, my own sense is that the former is more likely the case. But as a lawyer and lifelong politician whose every utterance has been examined by the media with an electron microscope I also think it likely that Clinton has adopted such debased, ultimately non-communicative language as a mode of survival. It’s possible, just, that she really feels she is letting her guard down in What Happened. It’s just that the thought that there is no more authentic self behind these layers is scary.

Near the end of the book she mentions a speech she gave that was called out by one publication as consisting of nothing more than “easy, moralistic preaching couched in the gauzy and gushy wrappings of New Age jargon.” She is hurt by this because, she says, the speech had been her “attempt to talk unguardedly about what I thought was wrong in the country.” One imagines her reading her bad review and saying to herself But this is the best I can do. Why aren’t people understanding that?

One wants to make the effort to understand. But then you unpack her nostrums for what ails America. These come in a chapter titled “Love and Kindness” (epigraph from Henry James: “Three things in life are important. The first is to be kind. The second is to be kind. And the third is to be kind.”). Apparently the soulful remedy for the nation’s malaise has to do with cultivating habits of the heart, idealism, and filling a spiritual vacuum. Her concerns along these lines began, she says, in college, where she “felt stifled by the conservative, dollar-crazed conformity of the Mad Men era.”

This line brought me up short. According to some reports Hillary Clinton has amassed a personal fortune of some $300 million out of a lifetime of public service. A particularly effective Trump election ad asked how she had gotten “filthy rich,” and it was a question that had traction because becoming so rich after having been in government so long just felt wrong. Trump was a NYC real estate developer, so everybody knew he was crooked and they weren’t all that concerned where his dirty money came from. As a government employee, Clinton was judged differently. This was the real double standard at play in the election, and it made her look terrible.

There’s a telling moment in Arlie Hochschild’s Strangers In Their Own Land where a local man complains of a high-paid minor government functionary. He then suggests the idea that government should be run something like the church: as a charity, where officials renounce the world and volunteer to live in poverty, much the same as monks and nuns.

That’s taking things to another extreme, but it was the sort of thinking, widely shared, that helped to amplify the whisperings of “Clinton cash” and “pay for play” politics. To take the most notorious example, just why were the big banks paying Hillary a quarter million dollars to give a speech that, according to one attendee, “was mostly basic stuff, small talk, chit-chat”? I don’t suspect anything too nefarious in it (beyond her remarks to Wall Street that she had to have “both a public and a private position” on issues), but still haven’t figured it out. In her own defence she would only say that she took the money because “that’s what they offered.”

Now I have nothing against Hillary Clinton being rich. I don’t even find too much that’s objectionable about her doing it by way of public service. But how could such a person possibly sermonize about choosing public service over chasing the almighty dollar? Between her ideals and the reality falls a shadow. Nor does it help that she gives so much back in the form of charity managed through her family foundations and trusts – especially ones with “Global” in their name. People don’t want charity (and among the new class of philanthro-capitalists even calling it “charity” is really stretching things). They don’t want a hand-out. They don’t want philanthropic billionaires who will take care of them (if they behave). They want a chance to live independent lives that have dignity and meaning. They want a fairer system.

There is something about this that Clinton just doesn’t get. At one point she admits that there may “be no room in our politics for the kind of discussion” she wants to have about the role and function of government in building a new sort of caring society. And so “I found a more receptive audience overseas.” Where? In socialist Scandinavia? Among the freedom-hating French?

No. She finds her ideal audience giving “a speech at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.”

Review first published online September 22, 2017. In 2021 Clinton would receive some mockery for her MasterClass course in “Resilience,” which featured her reading her 2016 victory speech. There was some surprise that she would do this, but for anyone who made it to the end of this book (something I think few people, including few of her reviewers, did) it would have come as no surprise. I’m sure she thinks it was a great speech.

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